Comal county republican party chair

A. Must be an adult member in good standing, believe in the principles of the Republican Party and have attended a minimum of two (2) meetings of the club prior to being elected. B. Must be a registered voter who has voted in at least one Republican Primary Election in the last four (4) years. C. What Can I Do? – Republican Party. (830) 837-5748. For best results call during our business hours M-F 10-2. Due to large volume of calls messages left may not be promptly answered. E-edition NB Monthly Backing Piner for Comal's Republican Party Chair David Taylor, New Braunfels Feb 17, 2022 0 I went to early voting yesterday and I have several thoughts to share. I love that the machine prints out a paper ballot to create a paper trail! It is a primary, so you will vote either Republican or Democrat.The County Chair is the leader of the local party in each county throughout the state. Some of their responsibilities include overseeing the Primary, Candidate Filing, and other elections; chairing County Executive Committee Meetings; organizing and leading the local party; as well as overseeing and/or assisting with precinct and county or Senate District Conventions as required.leadership Sue Piner Chairman [email protected] 830-214-3687 Current Elected Republicans Ted Cruz U.S. Senator John Cornyn U.S. Senator Greg Abbott Governor Dan Patrick Lieutenant Governor Ken Paxton TX Attorney General Glen Hegar TX Comptroller George P Bush Land Commissioner Sid Miller Agriculture Commissioner Wayne Christian E-edition NB Monthly Backing Piner for Comal's Republican Party Chair David Taylor, New Braunfels Feb 17, 2022 0 I went to early voting yesterday and I have several thoughts to share. I love that the machine prints out a paper ballot to create a paper trail! It is a primary, so you will vote either Republican or Democrat.Oct 26, 2020 · Comal County Republican Party Chair Sue Piner said those amounts actually covered rent of the venue for two events, an Oct. 12 candidate forum and the Sept. 10 “Trey Gowdy Event.” Garcia said she is satisfied with Camareno’s response but hopes he will have a “frank discussion” with Comal Republicans about the way the party files ... Comal The Local Canvass for the County Comal County Republican Party Runoff Election will begin at 2:00 amo Thursday, June 2 , 2022 CCRP Headquarters, 275 Landa, New Braunfels Texas. County Chair 05/27/2022 Date Comal The Local Canvass for the County Comal County Republican Party Runoff Election will begin at 2:00 amo Thursday, June 2 , 2022 CCRP Headquarters, 275 Landa, New Braunfels Texas. County Chair 05/27/2022 Date homeschool bible curriculum for family Jun 23, 2022 · Republican Club of Comal County is having a fun evening for our Patrons. When: June 23, 2022 @ 5:30-9:00pm. Where: 1554 Gruene Rd, New Braunfels, TX 78130. Oct 26, 2020 · Comal County Republican Party Chair Sue Piner said those amounts actually covered rent of the venue for two events, an Oct. 12 candidate forum and the Sept. 10 “Trey Gowdy Event.” Garcia said she is satisfied with Camareno’s response but hopes he will have a “frank discussion” with Comal Republicans about the way the party files ... Comal County Republican Party. Report this profile Experience County Chairman ... County Chairman Comal County Republican Party 2015 - Present 7 years. Director of Human Resources The Scooter ... Jun 04, 2020 · The final (so far, this Thursday night) GOP county chair with troublesome social media posts is in Comal County (New Braunfels), Chairwoman Sue Piner. Piner reportedly shared a post on Sunday with ... GOP county chairs are elected leaders of the Republican Party who help oversee local elections and head up county-level meetings and events. News circulating about the first five chairs' posts ...Comal County Republican Party March 6, 2020 · Sue Piner, Chair, Comal County Republican Party is introduced as an elected official by the Honorable Jeff Rose, Chief Justice, Texas 3rd Court of Appeals.Feb 17, 2022 · Backing Piner for Comal’s Republican Party Chair. David Taylor, New Braunfels. Feb 17, 2022. 0. I went to early voting yesterday and I have several thoughts to share. I love that the machine prints out a paper ballot to create a paper trail! It is a primary, so you will vote either Republican or Democrat. On the Republican side there is a ... In 2005-2006, Hoss served as the first official President of the Republican Club of Comal County, and helped lay the foundation for what has been one of the most active Republican Clubs in the State. In 2021, Hoss was chosen to assume the duties of Precinct 203 Chair from retiring Precinct Chair, Bucky Smith. Democratic Leadership with Texas Democratic Gubernatorial Candidate Beto O'Rourke his April 2022 Town Hall event in New Braunfels. Welcome to the website for the Comal County Democratic Party (CCDP) and our sister organizations, the Democrats of Comal County (DOCC) and the Democratic Women of Comal County (DWCC). We are glad you are here!Committee chairs shall be members in good standing and registered voters who have voted in at least one Republican Primary in the last four (4) years, with the exception of the Junior Member. B. Other Appointments: The President shall appoint a Chaplain, Parliamentarian and a Sergeant-at-Arms as necessary. ARTICLE VIII BOARD OF DIRECTORSOct 26, 2020 · Comal County Republican Party Chair Sue Piner said those amounts actually covered rent of the venue for two events, an Oct. 12 candidate forum and the Sept. 10 “Trey Gowdy Event.” Garcia said she is satisfied with Camareno’s response but hopes he will have a “frank discussion” with Comal Republicans about the way the party files ... leadership Sue Piner Chairman [email protected] 830-214-3687 Current Elected Republicans Ted Cruz U.S. Senator John Cornyn U.S. Senator Greg Abbott Governor Dan Patrick Lieutenant Governor Ken Paxton TX Attorney General Glen Hegar TX Comptroller George P Bush Land Commissioner Sid Miller Agriculture Commissioner Wayne ChristianComal County Republican Party at 265 Landa St, New Braunfels, TX 78130. Get Comal County Republican Party can be contacted at (830) 837-5748. Get Comal County Republican Party rKaufman & Lynd reviews, rating, hours, phone number, directions and more. Jun 11, 2012 · For our County to be recognized by the election of so many of our stars in a meeting of the entire CD21 delegation to the RPT (seven Counties!) and by the National Delegate Committee for CD 35, shows the strength of our Comal County Republican Party. It is the fruit of the labor of all of you who spend hours and days fighting the Conservative ... A. Must be an adult member in good standing, believe in the principles of the Republican Party and have attended a minimum of two (2) meetings of the club prior to being elected. B. Must be a registered voter who has voted in at least one Republican Primary Election in the last four (4) years. C. home a rama 2019 Sue Piner, party chair of the Comal County Republican Party said Cheney no longer represents her party's values and had to go. She said the country needs elected Republicans who are in tune with the people who voted them into office. "Liz Cheney does not reflect Republican values," Piner said.Hays County Republican Women along with many of our Republican Candidates will be at our booth. Saturday, September 3rd from 12:00p - 8:00p. Gregg-Clarke Park. 1231 W. Center Street in Kyle, TX. Come visit us while enjoying the festival offerings which include live music, hot air balloon rides, kids' play area, vendors and of course, PIE!GOP county chairs are elected leaders of the Republican Party who help oversee local elections and head up county-level meetings and events. News circulating about the first five chairs' posts ...Sue Piner, chair of the Comal County GOP, shared a post on Sunday that included an image of liberal billionaire George Soros and text that said, "I pay white cops to murder black people.Jun 09, 2020 · Similar inflammatory posts involved Bexar County GOP Chair Cynthia Brehm, Nueces County Chair Jim Kaelin, Harrison County Chair Lee Lester and Keith Nielsen, incoming Harris County Republican Party chair, for his MLK Facebook post. Last Saturday, Nielsen resigned before he was to be sworn into office June 15. About Comal County Republican Party: Comal County Republican Party is located at 681 S State Highway 46 Ste f in New Braunfels, TX - Comal County and is a business listed in the categories Political Organizations and Political Organizations & Candidates. After you do business with Comal County Republican Party, please leave a review to help ... Hays County Republican Women along with many of our Republican Candidates will be at our booth. Saturday, September 3rd from 12:00p - 8:00p. Gregg-Clarke Park. 1231 W. Center Street in Kyle, TX. Come visit us while enjoying the festival offerings which include live music, hot air balloon rides, kids' play area, vendors and of course, PIE! monmouth lacrosse schedule Sue Piner, party chair of the Comal County Republican Party said Cheney no longer represents her party's values and had to go. She said the country needs elected Republicans who are in tune with the people who voted them into office. "Liz Cheney does not reflect Republican values," Piner said.The County Chair is the leader of the local party in each county throughout the state. Some of their responsibilities include overseeing the Primary, Candidate Filing, and other elections; chairing County Executive Committee Meetings; organizing and leading the local party; as well as overseeing and/or assisting with precinct and county or Senate District Conventions as required.Chairman West's Monday Message for 12.28.20 Reflections on 2020 Howdy everyone! I pray y'all had a very Merry Christmas and that Santa granted you your wishes. As for me, I got exactly what I... Comal County Republican Party (P) Texas Political Action Committee $9 Cash on Hand. $0 Total Contributions. $770 Total Expenditures. Overview; Donations ... A. Must be an adult member in good standing, believe in the principles of the Republican Party and have attended a minimum of two (2) meetings of the club prior to being elected. B. Must be a registered voter who has voted in at least one Republican Primary Election in the last four (4) years. C. Keith Nielsen, incoming Harris County Republican Party chair, is also under fire after his Facebook post involving MLK. There have been no such calls for Piner's resignation just six months since Comal Republicans selected her to succeed Ruth Pharis in the position. Pharis, who served four years as chair, stepped down for health reasons.Democratic Leadership with Texas Democratic Gubernatorial Candidate Beto O'Rourke his April 2022 Town Hall event in New Braunfels. Welcome to the website for the Comal County Democratic Party (CCDP) and our sister organizations, the Democrats of Comal County (DOCC) and the Democratic Women of Comal County (DWCC). We are glad you are here!Jun 11, 2012 · For our County to be recognized by the election of so many of our stars in a meeting of the entire CD21 delegation to the RPT (seven Counties!) and by the National Delegate Committee for CD 35, shows the strength of our Comal County Republican Party. It is the fruit of the labor of all of you who spend hours and days fighting the Conservative ... Jun 23, 2022 · Republican Club of Comal County is having a fun evening for our Patrons. When: June 23, 2022 @ 5:30-9:00pm. Where: 1554 Gruene Rd, New Braunfels, TX 78130. Oct 19, 2018 · Oct. 25, 2018 6:30 PM Comal County Republican Party Headquarters, 265 Landa St, New Braunfels Agenda Welcome Prayer Pledges Minutes of Sept. meeting Treasurer’s Report OLD BUSINESS: Install Josh Dean as Precinct Chair #405 Discuss status of training for Judges, including how to set up the ‘poll book’ tablet Recent Candidate Rallies NEW… saturn triton raft GOP county chairs are elected leaders of the Republican Party who help oversee local elections and head up county-level meetings and events. News circulating about the first five chairs' posts ...Feb 17, 2022 · Backing Piner for Comal’s Republican Party Chair. David Taylor, New Braunfels. Feb 17, 2022. 0. I went to early voting yesterday and I have several thoughts to share. I love that the machine prints out a paper ballot to create a paper trail! It is a primary, so you will vote either Republican or Democrat. On the Republican side there is a long list of candidates who, unless you do proper research, many will be a dart throw. About Comal County Republican Party: Comal County Republican Party is located at 681 S State Highway 46 Ste f in New Braunfels, TX - Comal County and is a business listed in the categories Political Organizations and Political Organizations & Candidates. After you do business with Comal County Republican Party, please leave a review to help ... Stephanie Johnson June 5, 2020 Comal County Republican Party Chair Sue Piner, far right, is being called out for racist comments she made on her Facebook page earlier this week. “I pay white cops to murder black people. And then I pay black people to riot. Because race wars keep the sheep in line.” Stephanie Johnson June 5, 2020 Comal County Republican Party Chair Sue Piner, far right, is being called out for racist comments she made on her Facebook page earlier this week. "I pay white cops to murder black people. And then I pay black people to riot. Because race wars keep the sheep in line."Mar 06, 2020 · March 6, 2020 · Sue Piner, Chair, Comal County Republican Party is introduced as an elected official by the Honorable Jeff Rose, Chief Justice, Texas 3rd Court of Appeals. Mar 06, 2020 · Comal County Republican Party. March 6, 2020 ·. Sue Piner, Chair, Comal County Republican Party is introduced as an elected official by the Honorable Jeff Rose, Chief Justice, Texas 3rd Court of Appeals. Jun 04, 2020 · The final (so far, this Thursday night) GOP county chair with troublesome social media posts is in Comal County (New Braunfels), Chairwoman Sue Piner. Piner reportedly shared a post on Sunday with ... Comal The Local Canvass for the County Comal County Republican Party Runoff Election will begin at 2:00 amo Thursday, June 2 , 2022 CCRP Headquarters, 275 Landa, New Braunfels Texas. County Chair 05/27/2022 Date Comal County Republican Party, New Braunfels, Texas. 3,044 likes · 79 talking about this · 217 were here. Conservative people working to promote the Platform of the Republican Party of Texas E-edition NB Monthly Backing Piner for Comal's Republican Party Chair David Taylor, New Braunfels Feb 17, 2022 0 I went to early voting yesterday and I have several thoughts to share. I love that the machine prints out a paper ballot to create a paper trail! It is a primary, so you will vote either Republican or Democrat. can t open attachments in gmailnursery rhyme jokesComal County Republican Party. Report this profile Experience County Chairman ... County Chairman Comal County Republican Party 2015 - Present 7 years. Director of Human Resources The Scooter ... Oct 26, 2020 · Comal County Republican Party Chair Sue Piner said those amounts actually covered rent of the venue for two events, an Oct. 12 candidate forum and the Sept. 10 “Trey Gowdy Event.” Garcia said she is satisfied with Camareno’s response but hopes he will have a “frank discussion” with Comal Republicans about the way the party files ... leadership Sue Piner Chairman [email protected] 830-214-3687 Current Elected Republicans Ted Cruz U.S. Senator John Cornyn U.S. Senator Greg Abbott Governor Dan Patrick Lieutenant Governor Ken Paxton TX Attorney General Glen Hegar TX Comptroller George P Bush Land Commissioner Sid Miller Agriculture Commissioner Wayne Christian Comal County Young Republicans Policy Director and Treasurer. Craig Young Former Hays County Republican Party Chair. Wesley Doss Hays County Republican Executive Committee Sergeant-at-Arms. Mike Lee Hays County Republican Party Parliamentarian. Nathalene Lee Hays County Republican Party SD 21 Delegate. Todd Purcell Former Dripping Springs Mayor ... Jun 04, 2020 · The final (so far, this Thursday night) GOP county chair with troublesome social media posts is in Comal County (New Braunfels), Chairwoman Sue Piner. Piner reportedly shared a post on Sunday with ... Jun 11, 2012 · For our County to be recognized by the election of so many of our stars in a meeting of the entire CD21 delegation to the RPT (seven Counties!) and by the National Delegate Committee for CD 35, shows the strength of our Comal County Republican Party. It is the fruit of the labor of all of you who spend hours and days fighting the Conservative ... What Can I Do? – Republican Party. (830) 837-5748. For best results call during our business hours M-F 10-2. Due to large volume of calls messages left may not be promptly answered. Comal The Local Canvass for the County Comal County Republican Party Runoff Election will begin at 2:00 amo Thursday, June 2 , 2022 CCRP Headquarters, 275 Landa, New Braunfels Texas. County Chair 05/27/2022 Date Comal The Local Canvass for the County Comal County Republican Party Runoff Election will begin at 2:00 amo Thursday, June 2 , 2022 CCRP Headquarters, 275 Landa, New Braunfels Texas. County Chair 05/27/2022 Date Jun 23, 2022 · Republican Club of Comal County is having a fun evening for our Patrons. When: June 23, 2022 @ 5:30-9:00pm. Where: 1554 Gruene Rd, New Braunfels, TX 78130. Comal County Young Republicans Diane Zornow, Vice President, BSBCR Donald Vormelker, Campaign Activities, BSBCR Robert Phillips, Membership, BSBCR Kathy Phillips, Local Government Participation Committee Chair, BSBCR Linda Bartle, Chaplain, BSBCR Fran Carlson, BSBCR Literacy Committee Chair Joe Leatherwood, Bexar County Conservatives Caucus ChairComal County Young Republicans Policy Director and Treasurer. Craig Young Former Hays County Republican Party Chair. Wesley Doss Hays County Republican Executive Committee Sergeant-at-Arms. Mike Lee Hays County Republican Party Parliamentarian. Nathalene Lee Hays County Republican Party SD 21 Delegate. Todd Purcell Former Dripping Springs Mayor ... virgo taurus 2022 Comal The Local Canvass for the County Comal County Republican Party Runoff Election will begin at 2:00 amo Thursday, June 2 , 2022 CCRP Headquarters, 275 Landa, New Braunfels Texas. County Chair 05/27/2022 Date Mar 06, 2020 · March 6, 2020 · Sue Piner, Chair, Comal County Republican Party is introduced as an elected official by the Honorable Jeff Rose, Chief Justice, Texas 3rd Court of Appeals. Comal County Republican Party (P) Texas Political Action Committee $9 Cash on Hand. $0 Total Contributions. $770 Total Expenditures. Overview; Donations ... May 17, 2016 · by Sonja Harris. Comal County, a Texas Republican stronghold, has an opportunity to elect its first Hispanic Republican countywide candidate this primary for District Clerk, Cherie Perez. Cherie has the support of the current District Clerk... Texas. November 9th, 2012. Jun 04, 2020 · The final (so far, this Thursday night) GOP county chair with troublesome social media posts is in Comal County (New Braunfels), Chairwoman Sue Piner. Piner reportedly shared a post on Sunday with ... Feb 17, 2022 · Backing Piner for Comal’s Republican Party Chair. David Taylor, New Braunfels. Feb 17, 2022. 0. I went to early voting yesterday and I have several thoughts to share. I love that the machine prints out a paper ballot to create a paper trail! It is a primary, so you will vote either Republican or Democrat. On the Republican side there is a long list of candidates who, unless you do proper research, many will be a dart throw. Comal County Republican Party, New Braunfels, Texas. 3,044 likes · 79 talking about this · 217 were here. Conservative people working to promote the Platform of the Republican Party of Texas Comal County Republican Party plus size purple dress for wedding Chair, Sue Piner and Vice Chair Susan Walker, attended a meeting of the Texas Republican County Chair Association (TRCCA), on Friday, in Austin. It’s amazing that Texas is so large and while each... What Can I Do? – Republican Party. (830) 837-5748. For best results call during our business hours M-F 10-2. Due to large volume of calls messages left may not be promptly answered. Sue Piner, party chair of the Comal County Republican Party said Cheney no longer represents her party's values and had to go. She said the country needs elected Republicans who are in tune with the people who voted them into office. "Liz Cheney does not reflect Republican values," Piner said.Comal The Local Canvass for the County Comal County Republican Party Runoff Election will begin at 2:00 amo Thursday, June 2 , 2022 CCRP Headquarters, 275 Landa, New Braunfels Texas. County Chair 05/27/2022 Date Comal County Republican Party. Report this profile Experience County Chairman ... County Chairman Comal County Republican Party 2015 - Present 7 years. Director of Human Resources The Scooter ... About Comal County Republican Party: Comal County Republican Party is located at 681 S State Highway 46 Ste f in New Braunfels, TX - Comal County and is a business listed in the categories Political Organizations and Political Organizations & Candidates. After you do business with Comal County Republican Party, please leave a review to help ... Comal County Republican Party. Report this profile Experience County Chairman ... County Chairman Comal County Republican Party 2015 - Present 7 years. Director of Human Resources The Scooter ... Mar 06, 2020 · March 6, 2020 · Sue Piner, Chair, Comal County Republican Party is introduced as an elected official by the Honorable Jeff Rose, Chief Justice, Texas 3rd Court of Appeals. Republican Party - Comal County (830) 837-5748 For best results call during our business hours M-F 10-2. Due to large volume of calls messages left may not be promptly answered. Comal County Republican Party 265 Landa Street New Braunfels, TX 78130 (830) 837-5748 Office Hours: M-F 10AM - 2PM 2022 Republican Candidates Name * First Last Phone *Comal County Republican Party (P) Texas Political Action Committee $9 Cash on Hand. $0 Total Contributions. $770 Total Expenditures. Overview; Donations ... Stephanie Johnson December 19, 2019 On Wednesday, Comal County Republican Party Chair Sue Piner presided over a drawing to decide where Comal County Republican candidates' names will appear on the March 3, 2020 primary ballot. Democrats' ballot draw was held at a luncheon on Thursday after Commissioners Court.Jun 04, 2020 · The final (so far, this Thursday night) GOP county chair with troublesome social media posts is in Comal County (New Braunfels), Chairwoman Sue Piner. Piner reportedly shared a post on Sunday with ... This sample ballot tool includes: All candidates in every upcoming election occurring within the 100 most-populated cities in the U.S., plus all federal and statewide elections, including ballot measures, nationwide. Additional local ballot measures may also be included. Comal County Republican Party. Report this profile Experience County Chairman ... County Chairman Comal County Republican Party 2015 - Present 7 years. Director of Human Resources The Scooter ... homemade derringer plansJun 23, 2022 · Republican Club of Comal County is having a fun evening for our Patrons. When: June 23, 2022 @ 5:30-9:00pm. Where: 1554 Gruene Rd, New Braunfels, TX 78130. Democratic Leadership with Texas Democratic Gubernatorial Candidate Beto O'Rourke his April 2022 Town Hall event in New Braunfels. Welcome to the website for the Comal County Democratic Party (CCDP) and our sister organizations, the Democrats of Comal County (DOCC) and the Democratic Women of Comal County (DWCC). We are glad you are here!COMAL COUNTY. TEXAS EIECCIÓN PRIMARIA 01 de marzo de 2022 CONDADO DE COMAL. TEXAS Criminal District Attorney Comal County Fiscal Penal del Distrito del Condado . de Comal Jennifer Anne Owens Tharp CountyJudge. Juez det Condado Sherman Krause County Court at Law No. 1 Corte de Justicio Nro. 7 del Condodo sample ballot REPUBLICAN PARTYJun 09, 2020 · Similar inflammatory posts involved Bexar County GOP Chair Cynthia Brehm, Nueces County Chair Jim Kaelin, Harrison County Chair Lee Lester and Keith Nielsen, incoming Harris County Republican Party chair, for his MLK Facebook post. Last Saturday, Nielsen resigned before he was to be sworn into office June 15. About Comal County Republican Party: Comal County Republican Party is located at 681 S State Highway 46 Ste f in New Braunfels, TX - Comal County and is a business listed in the categories Political Organizations and Political Organizations & Candidates. After you do business with Comal County Republican Party, please leave a review to help ... dogs for adoption los angelesChairman West's Monday Message for 12.28.20 Reflections on 2020 Howdy everyone! I pray y'all had a very Merry Christmas and that Santa granted you your wishes. As for me, I got exactly what I... Jun 08, 2020 · A meme shared by Sue Piner, Republican Party county chair in Comal County, via Facebook. It also was shared by other chairs across Texas, some of whom are being called on to resign their positions. Oct 19, 2018 · Oct. 25, 2018 6:30 PM Comal County Republican Party Headquarters, 265 Landa St, New Braunfels Agenda Welcome Prayer Pledges Minutes of Sept. meeting Treasurer’s Report OLD BUSINESS: Install Josh Dean as Precinct Chair #405 Discuss status of training for Judges, including how to set up the ‘poll book’ tablet Recent Candidate Rallies NEW… Chairman West's Monday Message for 12.28.20 Reflections on 2020 Howdy everyone! I pray y'all had a very Merry Christmas and that Santa granted you your wishes. As for me, I got exactly what I... Mar 06, 2020 · March 6, 2020 · Sue Piner, Chair, Comal County Republican Party is introduced as an elected official by the Honorable Jeff Rose, Chief Justice, Texas 3rd Court of Appeals. This sample ballot tool includes: All candidates in every upcoming election occurring within the 100 most-populated cities in the U.S., plus all federal and statewide elections, including ballot measures, nationwide. Additional local ballot measures may also be included. Comal County Republican Party (P) Texas Political Action Committee $9 Cash on Hand. $0 Total Contributions. $770 Total Expenditures. Overview; Donations ... Comal County Republican Party March 6, 2020 · Sue Piner, Chair, Comal County Republican Party is introduced as an elected official by the Honorable Jeff Rose, Chief Justice, Texas 3rd Court of Appeals.Comal County Republican Party. Report this profile Experience County Chairman ... County Chairman Comal County Republican Party 2015 - Present 7 years. Director of Human Resources The Scooter ... May 17, 2016 · by Sonja Harris. Comal County, a Texas Republican stronghold, has an opportunity to elect its first Hispanic Republican countywide candidate this primary for District Clerk, Cherie Perez. Cherie has the support of the current District Clerk... Texas. November 9th, 2012. doja cat roblox id xa